Alexandria (more than 5 million inhabitants) it is the second largest center of Egypt and a dynamically developing center of trade, culture and industry. The fumes make life difficult for the inhabitants, crowds in the streets, construction work. The excavations in Alexandria are primarily work to secure it, which was accidentally discovered during the construction of a new bank building, hotel or expressway. Comprehensive research is still not being carried out – still unknown, what will be in deep trenches. Lots of people believe, that there is no need to go to Alexandria. This is a misconception. For half a century the metropolis tried to cut itself off from its Mediterranean roots, but she didn't quite succeed. Currently, at every step you can see the desire to restore its cultural position as the capital of the Mediterranean. Tourists most often wander around the city center in the triangle delineated by the Sa'ad Zaglul squares, al-Gumhurija i Orabi. Walking around these neighborhoods, Good to remember, that under the pavement slabs and the asphalt road lies an unknown and somewhat forgotten Alexandria of Ptolemy and Caesars.
From Midan Sa'ad Zaglul to the Greek-Roman Museum
The city center has moved east from Orabi Square to Midan Sa'ad Zaglul, decorated with a statue of Egyptian nationalist leader Sad Zaghlul (1858-1927). There is a tourist information office in the square and the pseudo-Mauritanian Hotel Cecil is located, during which, during the Second World War, plans for the battle of Al-Alamajn were prepared. Around the once fashionable Alexandrian pastry shops, They captivate with remnants of Art Nouveau decor (Delices, Trianon, Athineos).
Next to the sharia of 'Nabi Daniel, you can see the wrought-iron gates of the Elijahu Ha-Navi synagogue, erected in 1885 r. in the then fashionable Italian style by Baron Jacques de Menansce. Not far from here you can see surrounded by tall buildings (entrance from rue de 1, 'Eglise Copte) the Coptic Cathedral of St.. Brand (early. XX w.). It was dedicated to St.. Mark the Evangelist, which in 67 r. in Alexandria he was martyred. The shape of the temple refers to the 12th-century Byzantine architecture. Its chapels hide the tombs of the first 47 the Patriarchs of Alexandria.
In a side street from the sharia 'Nabi Daniel (shari 'Sharm ash-Szajch) The Kawafis Museum was opened, the New Greek poet of Alexandria, the last witness to the city's cultural and religious diversity. The museum is located on the second floor of the house near the hospital, where he died. He was buried in the Greek Shatbi Cemetery. Near, in the Greek church of St.. Saby (XVII w.) marble plaque is kept, where St.. Catherine of Alexandria.
The intersection of Hurrija and Fuad Streets with Shari 'Nabi Daniel marks the former center of the ancient center. The road under the asphalt is the old Kanopska Road to the seaside Kanopos, flanked by marble columns of porticoes. It led to the centrally located Sun Gate. The researchers believe, that the Muzejon - the temple of the muses - stood nearby, founded by King Ptolemy I Soter (323-282 p.n.e.), a research center and a library famous all over the world at that time. Opposite the Museon stood the famous Soma, where the remains of Alexander the Great were buried.
More notable Ptolemy were buried in it, which the victorious Octavian Augustus so despised. Many archaeologists are looking for the tomb of Alexander the Great. Some people do, that Soma is under the foundations of the 19th-century Nabi Daniel Mosque.
Shari 'Nabi Daniel comes to Midan al-Gumhurija and the neo-baroque railway station from 1927 r., built according to the Greek-Italian design.
Not far from here (to the north) towards Komad-Dik(Kom el-Dik, "Hill of rubble") with the only Roman theater in Egypt, actually the odeon and the ruins of the thermal baths and the Bird House.
Formerly there was a Napoleonic fort here – w 1959 r. it was decided to demolish it, to build a block.
When the work started, head of the Polish archaeological mission, prof. Kazimierz Michałowski received the message, that the drill threw the ancient mosaic cubes out of the ground. It was only thanks to experience and good relations with the Egyptian authorities that the professor managed to stop the work of laying the foundations.
Finally, a magnificent Roman odeon from the 2nd century was unveiled., with marble (perhaps Italian marble) seats for 600-700 viewers in 13 rows. Some places were numbered with Greek letters.
In the center of the orchestra, a circle of gray stones marked the spot, where the actor had a stereo audition of his performance. The ruins of the academy were discovered by Polish archaeologists in 2004 r., and two years later they unveiled three (of thirteen) lecture halls (their reconstruction is planned). It is the oldest known university in the world, continuation of the work of the Library of Alexandria. The Roman Odeon served as Auditorium Maximum. The building was damaged by a powerful earthquake in the 6th or 7th century. The grounds of the ancient academy and the Roman city are inaccessible to visitors due to ongoing archaeological excavations.
Excavations have also revealed a residential area with a cistern, gymnasium and Roman columned streets.
North of the theater stands the so-called. House of Birds, Roman villa from Hadrian's time with a wonderful mosaic floor in the main room with images of nine species of birds and a panther. Going to her, you walk past the lab, where the monuments taken from the sea bottom are cleaned as part of the search for the so-called. the palace of Cleopatra and the lighthouse of Faros.
Northeast of the ruins between the houses, you can see the remains of the defensive walls. The Museum of Fine Arts is located east of Masr Station. The facility exhibits Egyptian and European painting from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century.
Typically, temporary exhibitions and book fairs are held here.