Mastaby Ptahhotepa i Achtihotepa
The double mastaba of Ptahhotep and Achthihotep is situated on the west side of the Josera complex. Ptahhotep was a priest of Ma'at and a high official during the reign of King Djedkare-Isesi (end of the 5th dynasty). His son Akhtihotep served as vizier, the judge and the chief overseer of the granaries and treasury. Mastaba was unearthed by Mariette in 1840 r. It is smaller than Ti's tomb, but more interesting. Not all the walls of the tomb were covered with finished reliefs. Here you can see scenes from everyday life: hunting for lions and gazelles, poultry farming, running oxen for herd count and slaughter. The image of quarreling sailors on a boat is characterized by extraordinary dynamics. Funny inscriptions appear next to the characters. There are also scenes of games and games for young people - running and wrestling, and the image of Ptahhotep listening to harpers and singers.
The main corridor is covered with almost complete reliefs. On the left, however, you can see sketches made with red paint, which the master of the working artist corrected in black. In one of the bas-reliefs, a servant is feeding Ptahhotep's birds. At the end of the corridor on the right there is a room with pillars, and on the left - the burial chamber of Ptahhotep, whose reliefs are among the finest examples of Old Kingdom art (preserved in an almost unchanged color). Chamber of Achtihotep, behind the hall with pillars on the left, resembles the Ptahhotep chamber, though it has slightly less decorations. On the left, a corridor leads to a room with an unidentified mummy, and then to the hall with pillars and the entrance corridor.
W 1865 r. northwest of the Step Pyramid, Mariette found the Mastaba Ti (restored by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities), which was built approx. 2500 r. p.n.e. (In the dynasty). Ti has made a great career. He was the court hairdresser, and after marrying the princess, Neferhotep became a friend of the pharaoh himself. He served the three rulers as a Table Companion, The Keeper of Secrets, Great Guardian of the Palace Gates, Superintendent of Royal Public Works, Head of the Writers' Department. His wife from the royal family brought him succession to the throne, which passed on to their joint children. Ti was buried in the tomb with his wife and eldest son. Mastaba stands on a hill of sand. Already in the vestibule there are reliefs depicting the deceased receiving tribute from his servants. The bas-reliefs in the open courtyard surrounded by pillars lost their original colors under the influence of sunlight. Thanks to that, that the decorations were made in the technique of convex relief, you can see many details, like the slaughter of an ox by the servants. On the eastern wall of the courtyard, servants are carrying Mr. Ti in a litter. Its status is evidenced by dwarfs and hunting dogs. On the west side of the courtyard, servants feed Ti's birds, m.in. geese and cranes. Further to the south, Ti is shown at work as a bookkeeper and ship loading officer. The shaft in the middle of the courtyard leads to the interior of the hall with a modest sarcophagus of the dignitary.
In the south-west corner of the courtyard you can see a blind gate, probably belonging to Ti's son. A narrow corridor leads to the rest of the mastaba, which shows a dignitary dressed in various outfits depending on the functions performed. The family of the deceased and specially appointed priests brought offerings of food and drink for the deceased here, passing through blind doors. The corridor ends with a magnificent door with reliefs depicting Ti and his wife as they ride through the swamps. In place of, where the narrow corridor widens a little, shows scenes of tomb statues being pulled on a sleigh, slaughtering animals for sacrifice and the Ti fleet in the waters of the Nile. The work of potters is depicted on the back wall of the storage room, bakers and scribes. Above the entrance you can see dancers in holy dance. A short passage through a narrow corridor leads to a room with two pillars with two blind doors on the west wall, decorated with colorful reliefs presenting the everyday life of ordinary Egyptians – peasants, craftsmen, fishermen and high officials during the fifth dynasty. The eastern wall is covered with pictures showing harvesting crops, m.in. a man pulling a disobedient donkey by the ear. Then Ti is in charge of the ship's carpenters, and then goldsmiths, sculptors, carpenters and tanners. The artists showed different phases of work – from the starting product to the final product. Next to the craftsmen, their statements were placed. A carpenter who works with a saw calls out to his friend: Give me another [blade]! This jat is hot! the lower part presents the scene of trade at the market and the exchange of goods for another. You can also learn about conversations between traders here: Look, my friend, a very beautiful chick, which is well dried. I want three hectares of wheat for her. Near this stage, the musicians entertain Mr. Ti, who is sitting at the sacrificial table. Through three holes in the south wall you can see the inside of the serdab, where a copy of the statue of the deceased was placed (original at the Cairo Museum). The reliefs on the north wall represent Mr. Ti's pleasures: fishing in the Nile, trapping game in the desert, sailing on the river - this famous relief known as Mr. Ti's Journey through papyrus overgrown repeatedly reproduced in textbooks on the history of Egyptian art as an example of a work with a balanced composition and at the same time a large load of artistic expression. Servants throw harpoons at the hippos, symbol of evil forces in nature, Chaos representatives, with which the ruler of Egypt and his officials fights. It also shows the collection of papyrus reeds and the cultivation of fields.