The area of today's Cairo was inhabited already in the Neolithic period.
As the Osirian myth says, in the Old Cairo area, against the pyramids, Horus and Set began to fight (Khere-oho – "Place of fight").
In today's Heliopolis district, there was a famous sanctuary for the sun god Re for almost a long time, called He or Iunu, and in the Ptolemaic period - the city of Heliopolis. W V w p.n.e. a Persian fortress was built, whose ruins were used by Octavian's soldiers (ok. 30 r. p.n.e.), building a stronghold called Babylon. The fortress was rebuilt many times, and a small town was concentrated around it, which during the Byzantine period turned into an administrative center with numerous Coptic churches: st. Sergius, Virgin Mary and St.. Barbary.
When in 641 r. a Muslim army led by Amr ibn al-Asa took Egypt, it was decided to build a new capital near the Roman fortifications. This is how Misr al-Fustat was born, called Misr for short. The name is associated with the Latin fossarum – "trench, pit", and the city was a fortified camp. Al-Fustat occupied the area between the Nile and the nearby hills. Only one kilometer on the island of Jazirat ar-Rauda z 715 r. The center grew to the north, and the rulers tried to become independent from the Caliphs of Baghdad. The first, Ibn Tulun was half an independent ruler, son of a mercenary Turkish soldier, extending the city called al-Askar ("camp").
The history of Cairo begins in 969 r., when the Berber troops led by Jauhar al-Sikilli (Gohara) took the city on behalf of the Shiite Fatimid dynasty. A new one was established north of the old center, Misr al-Qahira ("Victorious"), from the Arabic name of the planet Mars, then at its zenith. Soon the name also included al-Fustat, henceforth called Old Cairo, and the Fatimids moved their capital here from Tunis. One of the first buildings was the al-Azhar mosque, then a famous Islamic university. Two hundred years of Fatimid rule resulted in defensive walls with gates: Bab an-Nasr, Bab al-Futuh, Bab Zuwajla. South of the latter, a mosque district has developed, palaces and gardens. W 1171 r. Saladyn (Salah ad-Din), Syrian Kurd, he made a coup and dethroned the Fatimid caliph. The Ayyubid dynasty he initiated led the city to even greater prosperity and power. It was a time of struggle against the Crusaders in Palestine, which Saladin snatched from their hands, to finally take Jerusalem. Of the buildings from that time, only the citadel has survived (1179). W 1249 r. the crusaders' army approaching the city walls was repulsed. Under the Ayyubids, a great role was played by the Sultan's guard of slave soldiers (Mamluks). These specially trained warriors, mostly from the Caucasus and Turkestan, finally they seized power and put their Sultan on the throne: thus began the 300-year-old Mamluk Age.
Despite the construction of magnificent and sumptuous buildings, power was slipping away more and more from their hands.
Revolts, attacks, courtly intrigues weakened the state, mighty Ottoman Turkey looked eagerly at. Finally in 1517 r. Turkish troops took over Egypt, and although Mamluk Beys managed to keep their possessions and some of their influence, Cairo became a provincial city.
W XVIII w., when things started to get worse in Turkey as well, Western nations began competing for power over the decaying empire, and above all over Egypt: this is how Napoleon's expedition took place. After the famous Battle of the Pyramids (21 VII 1798 r.) French troops occupied Cairo. The corps of scientists came with them, studying the newly conquered country and its centuries-old culture. And although Napoleon's expedition ended in a disaster, Europe discovered civilization on the Nile through the eyes of Napoleonic explorers and fell in love with it. During this time, corrupt Mamluks were deprived of power by the Egyptian Pasha with Turkish grace, Albanian by origin - Mohammed Ali. He dreamed of a mighty Egypt and getting out of Turkish "protection", so he focused on the modernization of the country and cooperation with Western powers, wishing to mark their presence on the Nile. Cairo, a city neglected by the Turks, suddenly became a great construction center. The wetlands were drained, modern districts and communication routes were built. The French obtained a concession to build the Suez Canal (1854), The British also had a lot to say. Unfortunately, Egypt got into debt, and its rulers were famous for their mismanagement and corruption, so the impoverished population began to rebel. Insurgent protest (1882) suppressed by the British with the help of cannons, and the country became a British colony. When in 1922 r. the English protectorate was abolished, Egypt was declared a kingdom. Meanwhile, in terms of mismanagement, nothing has changed. During World War II, some Cairo people thought, that Hitler would offer them true independence. They miscalculated. W 1952 r. the secret organization of Free Officers dethroned King Farouk and took power. W 1954 r. Gamal Abdel Naser became president, and after his death, Anwar aas-Sadat (1918-1981). Today Egypt is ruled by President Hosni Mubarak.