The largest and best Greek-Roman Museum in Egypt tells you about the city's long history (covering the period from 300 p.n.e. do 600 neither.).
The museum was founded in 1892 r. in a small building at shari'Hurrija. W 1895 r. the collection was moved to its current location to a building with a neoclassical facade with six columns and entablature with the Greek inscription "MOYXEION" (Museum). From 1984 r. can be visited 27 exhibition halls and an interesting exhibition in the garden. Objects of worship from the pharaonic period are gathered here, Greco-Roman and Christian: mummy, Hellenistic statues, busts of emperors, Tanagra figurines and early Christian monuments, as well as an excellent collection of coins from approx. 630 p.n.e. until Turkish rule (XIX w.).
Prehistoric finds and two sphinxes from the time of Apries are on display in the vestibule, early Christian monuments (made of alabaster, the Good Shepherd has the features of Coptic art), basket heads typical of Byzantine art, and also the Alexandrian coins (ok. 50 thousand. pieces), Coptic textiles, architectural details of colored clay from churches and monasteries and an ancient irrigation system. In the Apis Hall: white marble statue of Serapis from the time of Hadrian (117-138), mozaiki aleksandryjskie, a collection of statues of Alexander the Great and Greek inscriptions and papyri.
The halls also contain Egyptian relics brought to Alexandria in the Ptolemaic era, mumie i sarkofagi, mummies of crocodiles), the Antoniades collection. There are also sandstone details from the temple at Athribis (Benha) and black basalt statues of priests, Greek Hellenistic sculpture, sarcophagi, terracotta products from the area of Alexandria: a wonderful collection of terracotta Tanagra figurines from the period between the 3rd century. p.n.e. grave gifts, Egyptian glass produced on the Nile, the head of Emperor Hadrian (of bronze), as well as portraits of Cleopatra, two reconstructed tombs with sarcophagi from the 3rd century. p.n.e. i I w. neither. and Egyptian sculptures.
Midan Orabi and Midan Tahrir
Following the Corniche from Midan Sa'ad Zaglul to the west, reaches the former center of Alexandria, the present Orabi Square, where the Monument of the Unknown Soldier stands facing the sea, behind which the former French Gardens were partially reconstructed. Midan Tahrir is adjacent to the square from the south (Freedom Square) with the equestrian statue of Muhammad Ali. This district was once home to European merchants and jewelers. The eye is drawn to the characteristic Gothic-Moorish body of the Anglican Church of St.. Brand. The Greek Orthodox Cathedral and the Catholic Cathedral of St.. Catherine.
The name of the Attarin mosque has been derived from jewelry studios that have been operating for centuries (szari‘ Attarin Mosque), erected on the site of St.. Atanazego (370 r.).
After the Muslims entered, the chief Amr Ibn El As changed the small temple into a mosque and gave it the name of the Mosque of a Thousand Columns. It was rebuilt during the Fatimid period. The multi-storey minaret dates back to the 14th century. Here Napoleon's soldiers excavated a huge 7-ton sarcophagus considered to be the tomb of Alexander the Great (w British Museum).
Turned out, that it was intended for the pharaoh Nektanebo I..
Little (compared to Cairo), but the perfectly organized National Museum uses the latest methods of exhibiting monuments and presents audiovisual shows. The facility was founded in 1926 r. The museum is housed in a three-story Italian-style house, surrounded by green, shady garden. Inside is a collection of Egyptian art from the time of the pharaohs (underground).
Among the most famous works are the statue of Emperor Iadrian and the statue of the Egyptian Pharaoh, as well as valuable grave gifts and jewelry. Egyptian mummies were displayed in the basement.
Fort Kaitbeja i Faros
The mall of ancient Alexandria, Eastern Port, it no longer pulsates with life as it used to be. In ancient times, the west of Midan Orabi was covered with water, and Alexandria with the island of Pharos (with a lighthouse) only a dike called the Heptastadion connected. The East Port area is being investigated by submarine archaeologists Jean-Yves Empereur and Franck Goddio.
Sidi Abu al-Abbas Ahmad al-Mursi Mosque
The city's most important religious building is the beautiful Sidi Abu al-Abbas Ahmed al-Mursi mosque, erected by Algerians in 1796 r. over the tomb of a 13th-century saintly man from Andalusia – Abu al-Abbasa, a Sufi sage of the order of Shadhali. The temple is a stop for the Moroccan pilgrims to Mecca, the szajdh – patron of local fishermen and sailors. Opposite the mosque are magnificent art deco houses, and under their arcades there are cafes.
Fort Kaitbeja and the former lighthouse of Faros
The former Heptastadion leads to the island of Faros, where one of the wonders of the ancient world stood – Lighthouse.
On the way, it is worth visiting the Aquarium and the Oceanographic Institute, as well as the picturesque Arab and Turkish districts. Fort Kaitbeja (ok. 1480 r.) is Alexandria's most iconic monument. It was built at the entrance to the Eastern Port on the foundations of an ancient lighthouse. Builder of the fort, Mamluk ruler of Egypt, Kaitbej (reigned in the years 1468-1496) used the remains of the collapsed at the beginning of the 14th century. lighthouse. The outer walls were built by the sultan el-Ghouri. huge pillars of red granite. The stronghold was to protect the city from attacks by the Turks. The fort was almost completely ruined twice.
Pharos is a small islet at the entrance to the port of ancient Alexandria, on which in years 300-280 p.n.e. a lighthouse was built at the request of Ptolemy I Soter, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The builder was Sostratos of Knidos. The lighthouse was put into use in 283 r. p.n.e. (or 279 r. p.n.e.) after Soter died, during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphos.
The appearance of the lighthouse can only be recreated on the basis of literary descriptions. The Faros lighthouse was approx. 135 m in height (according to other calculations 117 m – height of the 40-story skyscraper) and possibly the shape of a prism, on which a narrower hexagonal prism was placed, and above it a cylindrical part. It was decorated with marble cladding and bronze statues of dolphins. A spiral ramp led to the top. Inside there are cranes for transporting fuel. The lantern was crowned with a huge statue of the god Helios. At the entrance there were two colossal figures of Ptolemy I Soter and his wife Berenice I. (found during submarine excavations in the middle of the years 90. XX w.). The lantern light was visible from a distance 40 km. Partial damage was caused by earthquakes – w II w. its top tier collapsed. W IX w. the remnants of the building were converted into a mosque. W 1962 r. During the underwater research, the remains of the original lighthouse were found.