The Egyptians never had a single term for a pyramid – Chephren's pyramid was called "Great is Chephren”, a Chufu (Cheopsa) – “Khufu lives on the horizon”. The term “pyramid” probably comes from the word pe-rem-us, which meant "simple, erect”. In ancient Egypt, a pyramid-shaped tomb was also called a mer. This form of a royal tomb was a transformation of the mastaba (from English. Arabic), shaped like a bench, in which kings and dignitaries were buried during the first dynasties (ok. 3100-2686 p.n.e.). The first pyramid was built for his ruler, Imhotep, architect of Pharaoh Djoser (XXVII w. p.n.e.). The structure in the shape of a stepped pyramid consisted of several mastabs, stacked on top of each other. The next phase of the development of the pyramids are the tombs of King Snofru (IV dynasty) from Dahshur: tamana A pyramid with a changed angle of inclination of the walls and a regular pyramid-shaped one. Correct angle of inclination (ok. 51°) it was developed during the 4th dynasty (XXVII-XXV w. p.n.e.). It was then that the most famous and largest objects of this type in Giza were built (Chufu-Cheopsa, Chafre-Chefrena i Menkaure-Mykerinosa). They were erected on a square plan and oriented according to the directions of the world. They were built of stone (a core of inferior quality, face made of polished white Tura limestone and partly of Aswan granite). The burial chambers were also lined with granite. Initially, the walls were not decorated, which caused a lot of trouble to Egyptologists, trying to come, for whom the tomb was built. Cult buildings were built at the pyramids (lower and upper mortuary temple, processional ramp or avenue, Wall, satellite pyramids).
After Egypt's power during the 4th Dynasty, more difficult times came, when smaller and much cheaper pyramids were built. From the 5th dynasty, ritual texts of the so-called. The Texts of the Pyramids (Piramida Unisa w Sakkarze). The buildings of the fifth and sixth dynasty kings were smaller (Abu Sir |). Finally, caused by the economic catastrophe after many years of drought, the collapse of the Old Kingdom and the power of Pharaoh ended the "age of the great pyramids”. During the Middle Kingdom period, the pharaohs continued to build these buildings, but they were not as monumental as before and did not stand the test of time. The Middle Kingdom Pyramids were originally built near Memphis. Later they were built in the Fayum oasis (around the unidentified capital Icz-Tawi). During the New Kingdom, the rulers abandoned burials in such structures due to frequent desecration of royal tombs.. Mere mortals erected small pyramids over the graves carved in the rocks (Western Thebes – Dajr al-Madina, Abydos). The form of a pyramid was reborn in Sudan, where in the 8th-7th centuries. p.n.e. rulers of the Kuszyce dynasty (XXV Dynasty in Egypt) erected necropolises near al-Kurru and Nuri. The pyramids were also built by Meroite rulers who imitated Egyptian culture (Meroe, Grab).
The technical side of the construction of the pyramid has caused many disputes since antiquity. According to Herodotus, Cheops put his way through 30 years, by hiring 100 thousand. workers. Today these numbers are considered overstated. Egyptian peasants built the pyramids, when their fields were covered with the waters of the swollen Nile. Being is a good income for them in the period of inactivity.
The pyramids were built for this, to keep the divine body of the ruler intact for centuries, by which he was guaranteed immortality. After the mummy was placed in the burial chamber, the entrance to the interior was bricked up and carefully masked. However, these measures did not protect them from desecration in the ancient times (First Transitional Period).