Ancient Tanis is not easy to reach. Contemporary village of San al-Hajar (Saint al-Hagar) is approx. 130 km northwest of Cairo. You can get here by taxi from Canatir in the south (18 km north and after turning left, approx. 20 km) or from Ismailia, Az-Zakaziku or from nearby Fakusu (37 km) -from the latter town also by bus. After the excavation site (perhaps the most important in the Delta) you are allowed to wander without restrictions.
Tanis, Staroegipskie Džanet, for over 350 years the seat and necropolis of the kings of the XXI and XXII dynasty, replaced Pi-Ramses, the capital of Egypt during the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties. In the Late Era (747-332 p.n.e.) was the capital 19. nomu dolnoegipskicgo.
In the territory of Tanis lay the blocks and statues of Pi-Ramses. Recent studies have dispelled all doubts.
If Avaris is a city from the Second Transition Period, Pi-Ramesses -from the New Kingdom, this Tanis arose in the Third Interim Period. At Tanis, the rulers ordered buildings to be erected from material taken from nearby cities.
In Roman times, the center fell into decline, because irrigation canals have been neglected.
W XIV w. the neighborhood turned into a desert. Life returned after the melioration of the Eastern Delta in 1821 r. and the rise of San al-Hajar.
Today, Tanis is a great field of ruins. Ruins of the Temple of Amun, though shattered and scattered, they surprise with their enormity. That big rectangular area (430 me and 370 m) was surrounded by a mud-brick wall by Fr. 15 m thick and approx. 10 m in height. There was another wall inside the circle. The temple was built during the reign of Psusennes I. (XXI dynastia), next rulers (21 i 22 dynasty) they enlarged the circle.
In the inner circle of the walls there was the temple of Amun.
Decorated blocks lie in this area, columns, broken obelisks and statues from different times and places. You can find the names of Khufu on them (Cheopsa), Chefrena, Teti,
Pepi I and Pepi II and Senusereta (Sezostrisa). Most of the stones bear the cartouche of Ramses II. In the courtyard of the temple there were 11-meter tall palm columns, surrounded by smaller papyrus. In the courtyard behind the second pylon, two colossal sphinxes of Amenemhat II attract attention, „hyksoski” sfinks Amenemhata III. Siamon built the rest of the district – And the pylon and the courtyard (second, counting from the outside). Osorkon III (XXII dynastia) he added another pylon and a courtyard (external).
Sheshonk III ordered a magnificent granite gate to be erected, through which you reached the first pylon.
The Temple of Horusa is situated southeast of the Sanctuary of Amun. It is the largest satellite structure excavated so far. It was funded by Nektanebo II, and Ptolemy II Philadelphus enlarged it. Near the south-west corner of the main temple wall you can see the ruins of the tabernacle of the goddess Mut (Anta; between the 6th and 3rd centuries. p.n.e.) identified with the Asian Ashtarte. It was rebuilt under Ptolemy IV (221-205 p.n.e.). There are two statues of the goddess Mut and Sekhmet.
There are many nilometers in Tanis with water level markings at the time of floods.
Awaris – The search for the Hyksos capital took a long time. Until recently, the three cities could not be distinguished: Tanis, Awaris and Pi-Ramzes. It was only carried out from 1966 r. by the Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak, the excavations made it possible to solve the mystery. Bietak was digging on Tali ad-Dab (Tell el Dab’a; Hyena hill), not far east of the Tali al-Qirqafa site, adjacent to the village of al-Khatana (ok. 6 km north of Fakusu). Hill (ok. 2 km2) it hid the remains of Awaris, the capital of the Lords of Foreign Lands. The city already existed in the XII dynasty and welcomed foreigners, including. z Kanaanu.
In years 90. XX w, the remains of a palace from the end of the Hyksos reign were found. The real sensation was the discovery (1991) wall paintings, resembling the Minoan paintings from the Palace of Knossos.