The most famous and most visited valley in Western Thebes, apart from the Valley of the Kings, is Deir el-Bahari (Dair al-Bahri), rock valley between Al-Asasif and the Valleys of Kings and Queens, whose name in Arabic means the Northern Monastery. There are posthumous places of worship built from the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period: temple of Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre, the temple of queen Hatshepsut and the temple of Thotmes III discovered by the Polish archaeological mission. The Egyptians called this valley Djoser – "Saints" and considered the abode of Hathor. The buildings are situated in a magnificent rock amphitheater. From the north, the valley is bordered by the necropolis of Dra Abu al-Naga, and to the south, Sheikh Abd al-Kurna. Using an eye-catching location, w 1995 r. Aida Verdi was staged here. The performance, which was prepared for a long time, consumed considerable costs, m.in. for the construction of a VIP highway, and it turned out to be a financial failure, very expensive tickets and poor advertising contributed to this.
Temple of Hatshepsut
Temple of Queen Hatshepsut called by the Egyptians Djoser-Djoser - the Holy Place of Saints, it is the most impressive structure on the west bank. Ancient texts do not state the date of construction, which scientists have established, analyzing the inscriptions on the ostracons and examining the temple itself. The works lasted over a dozen years and were carried out in several stages, and ended with the death of the founder. One of the builders was an architect named Senenmut (Senmut), influential figure at the royal court, and also Dzhuti, treasury minister and works supervisor (the tomb at Dra Abu al-Naga).
After Hatshepsut's death, Thotmes III rebuilt the temple and removed most of his aunt's images.
In Ptolemaic times, the upper terrace, damaged by landslides, was restored, and during the Christian period, the Copts founded a monastery here.
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. the temple became the focus of researchers. The first was J.F. Champollion, who drew attention to the female form of the epithets at the title of Hatshepsut. Richard Lepsius and Augusta Mariette were also interested in the ruins. Thorough research began in 1891 r. Naville, a kontynuowali Winlock i Baraize, who undertook the reconstruction of the temple.
His team made many mistakes, although with the state of knowledge at the time, it was inevitable. W 1961 r. The Egyptian Organization of Antiquities offered the Polish Center of Mediterranean Archeology in Cairo to work on the reconstruction of the team. It took Polish archaeologists and conservators many years. Bas-reliefs broken into hundreds of pieces were laid, shattered statues of the queen were restored, paintings and chapels were renovated. The problem of protecting the upper terrace from falling boulders has also been solved. Most of the architectural fragments lying on the lower terrace have disappeared, for their place was found on the terraces of the temple. The main work was completed in 2002 r. and the temple was then opened to the public.
W 2006 r. The Poles have completed the reconstruction of the Chapels of Royal Worship, and in January 2007 r. sanctuary of Amun.
The temple was located in the valley from at least 500 years considered a saint, in a place associated with the local Hathor cult, but also almost directly in front of the Temple of Amun in Karnak and not far from the tomb of Hatshepsut in the Valley of the Kings. The building on three terraces with colonnades imitates the style of the adjacent mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II.
From the Nile to the lower, non-existent mortuary temple, and then the avenue of sphinxes stretched to the lower terrace.
Balsam trees from the Land of Punt were planted on the lower terrace (trunks count over 3500 years). The colonnade ends the lower terrace, for which in the south wing (Portyk Obelisków) there are fragmentarily preserved colorful reliefs showing the transport and setting of obelisks in the Temple of Amun in Karnak and the procession of soldiers. The northern colonnade brings life to the Egyptian countryside (Hunting Portico). On the boat, Hatshepsut, accompanied by Khnum and Horus, sets a net for the marsh birds. The signal to start hunting is Thot.
There is also a fishing scene.
Thotmes III also participates in the ceremony. These are patterns from the fifth and sixth dynasties depicting the Feast of the White Hippopotamus, zwane got hedżet. Some of the reliefs were destroyed by order of Thotmes III (Hatshepsut's faces and characters), and later Akhenaten (the images of Amon). Amon was renewed, but the queen remained unchanged.
Ramp, guarded by two queen-faced lions, leads to the middle terrace. Here, too, grew trees that gave resin for incense. The central courtyard on the north side is limited by the northern colonnade. On the west side, the ramp divides the colonnade into two parts, with chapels at the ends. On the north side is Anubis' lower chapel with beautiful colorful reliefs depicting the queen making offerings to Anubis. It is a wonderful room of Fr. 12 polygonal columns with two niches and two further rooms in the enfilade and a beautiful ceiling with stars. On the south wall there is a destroyed scene of the queen making sacrifices to Anubis, further chiseled depiction of the queen-man with Osiris, Re-Horachte i Nechbet. On the west wall, the queen (skuta) makes an offering to Amon-Re, sitting at the sacrificial table, and then Anubis.
On the north wall, Thotmes III makes an offering to Sokaris. Further to the left, the central colonnade hides the so-called. Portico of the Birth. The queen's imaginations were destroyed, but here she played the role of "master of rituals". The theme is the story of Hatshepsut's divine birth and the mythical journey with his father to the great sanctuaries of Egypt. The divine birth occupies the right hand of the entire south wall and the lower register of the west and north walls. The reliefs show her mother, Queen Ahmes, which was visited by Amon and succeeded Thotmez I.. Hence, Hatshepsut – child of god – she was entitled to exercise royal power. It is formed on the potter's wheel by Khnum (naturally as a pharaoh boy).
Then the birth scenes follow (with goddesses as midwives) and scenes of feeding the little princess with Hathor's milk, what the divine cows of Sechat-Hor and Hesat did.
Next, the queen receives a disc from Anubis – symbol of power over time. The trip to the Delta sanctuaries and the coronation scene were placed in the upper register of the west and north walls. This is Hatshepsut's presentation to the gods, culminating in the announcement of her Pharaoh of Egypt in the presence of the gods and representatives of the people. The deceased and deified rulers of Egypt appear among the audience.