Nazwa al-Alamajn (Al -’Alamayn, El-Alamejn), away by 106 km west of Alexandria i 240 km from Cairo, it came from the double top of the hill – Tali al-Alamajn. This modern oil port, connected by a pipeline to the Abu Gharadik field in the Libyan Desert, it is also a tourist center. W 1955 r. Rich oil fields have been found nearby – mining contributed to the development of the region. Boasting a long history, the center was a sleepy town before World War II. Ptolemejskie Gaucum, called Leucasis in Roman times (Leucapsis or Locabsis), it is also famous for two great battles, which took place during the Second World War. The attraction is, among others. great War Museum (highway 8 km) with memorabilia of battles and clashes in Africa, and also cemeteries: Allied soldiers and German and Italian soldiers on Tali al-Eisa. In the first battle of al-Alamayn (1-31 VII 1942 r.) the German-Italian troops of General Erwin Rommel were detained by the British 8. Army of General Claude Auchinlecka. In the second battle (23 X-3 XI 1942 r.) Allied forces of Marshal Bernard L.. Montgomery broke the Axis front and forced its troops to withdraw to Tunisia. These battles had a decisive influence on hostilities in North Africa.
Al-Alamajn is also a great place to relax. Before World War II, Winston Churchill argued, that there is the best climate in the world here. A number of hotels and tourist villages were built here, such as Hotel Atic, and the resort has become a popular spa. 2 km from him, The modern Marina Tourist Village was built by the beautiful beach. During construction, archaeologists found the ruins of the city and port from the Greek and Roman epochs.
The War Museum and the cemeteries of the fallen
Noteworthy are the cemeteries of the Allied, German and Italian troops on Tali al-Eisa. It is not possible to walk on the battlefield. Exhibits at the War Museum bring closer the course of the battle. To get here, you need to get off at the gas station, and from there follow the road next to the Israeli tank from the Egyptian-Israeli wars to the intersection, where you need to turn left. A small museum was opened in 1956 r., and renovated in 1992 r. Modern audiovisual equipment is used to image the next phases of the battle. There are trucks outside, tanks, works and some other hardware. The exhibits are well preserved. You can see a real bunker, from which Montgomery commanded the battle (opened at the request of visitors).
The British Wdjsk Cemetery on Tali al-Alamajn Hill is located more than 7 thousand. tombs carved into the rock lined up in neat rows, among which it is 9 the graves of Polish soldiers from the Carpathian Rifle Brigade who died in the battle. Allied monuments and cemeteries are on the road off the highway, just after the exit towards the Qattara Depression. First you can see the monument of Greek soldiers, a few hundred meters away - South African soldiers. Next up – allied cemetery (codz. with ex. pt. 7.00-14.30; free), designed by Sir Hubert Worthington. At the entrance there is a monument to Australian soldiers (9. Australian Division). He's resting here 7367 fallen (including 815 unknown).
In the cloisters at the rear of the cemetery, almost names are written on the limestone wall 12 thousand. soldiers, whose bodies were not found, representing all British Commonwealth and Allied nationalities: French, Greeks and Poles.
About 3 km west of al-Alamayn, a small sign on the south side of the road indicates the easternmost point, achieved by the Axis forces. 3 km to the west of the Italian plate and approx. 10 km from the Greek monument there is a German war cemetery (1959) from 4280 graves. Made of white marble, the Italian Monument to the Fallen is located approx. 1 km behind the German cemetery.
Sidi Abd ar-Rahman
About 9 km after the last monuments there is a small town of Sidi Abd ar-Rahman with a white beach and a luxurious hotel. It is a good place to relax, but you have to book many months in advance for your hotel stay. The attraction is approx. 3 km away from the hotel a Bedouin settlement, who came from Libya a few hundred years ago.
It was the headquarters of the Afrika Korps.
Oasis of Siwa and Alexander the Great
Oaza Siwa (Siwah, Wahat Siwa, STwah, Wahat Siwa) it lies in the Western Desert between the Munchafad al-Kattara depression (Oattara, Munkhafa al-Oajjarah) and the Great Sand Sea, ok. 50 km from the border with Libya and 560 km from Cairo. It has a length 80, and the width is approx. 20 km. He lives in this isolated place 23 thousand. people, mostly Berbers, speaking a specific gray language (dim. forces). The oasis has been cut off from the world for a long time, today it is open to the public, and tourism is one of the most important sources of income for residents, who also weave baskets. Date palms and olives grow in the oasis. It is a great starting point for the nearby desert. Lush palm groves grow by several freshwater springs and salt lakes, great dunes and jagged mountain ranges rise all around, forming a circle, inside which people live and where the ruins of labyrinthine mud-brick cities rise – Shali i aghurmi. The ruins of the temples tell about the place, which the Persian king was striving for, and Alexander the Great arrived.
Siwa as the site of the Oracle of Amun was a great religious center. The Greeks of Cyrene maintained contact with the oracle of Zeus-Ammon at Aghurmi as early as the 7th century. p.n.e. It was also loud in the Nile Valley, when Cambyses' 50,000 Persian army set out into the desert, to destroy a reluctant oracle. But it was only the visit of Alexander the Great that brought her the greatest fame. It is not known, what the Macedonian learned there, but the visit undoubtedly influenced the ruler's attitude towards his mission.
The modern village of Aghurmi (Aghurmi) it is situated in front of the ancient mines with the fortress. Only one gate led to its interior. The oracle at that time was among the six most important in the ancient world. The Temple of the Oracle dedicated to Amon dates back to the reign of King Amazis (570-525 p.n.e.) of the XXVI Dynasty. The small temple is quite well preserved. It was built on a high rock - the city's acropolis.